Bener, A., & Glynn, T. (2014). Protein Timing in Resistance Training and the Impact on Muscle Hypertrophy. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28 (4), 1176-1182. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000828
A key finding of this study is that the quality of muscle hypertrophy is dependent upon total protein intake, and not temporal variables. The strength analysis provides some evidence that timing of protein intake in and around a training session may have an impact on muscular adaptations, but this effect was small and not supported by the full meta-regression analysis. While the strength analysis indicated that protein timing may have a small effect on muscular adaptation, the full meta-regression model suggests that this effect is effectively zero.
Sawka, C., & Sawka, K. (2009). Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein accretion following a single resistance exercise session. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23 (7), 1815-1818.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of pyramid training (including partial pyramid and reverse pyramid) to a control group. Cross-over RCTs were excluded. However, cross-over studies were included if the intervention group completed at least two training cycles, and the control group only completed one cycle.
Multicenter trials were included but single center studies were excluded.
Studies had to report at least one outcome measure that evaluated strength or hypertrophy or both. Strength included traditional measures, such as one repetition maximum (1RM) and repetition maximum (RM). Strength was evaluated immediately post-intervention and within 3 months after the intervention. Hypertrophy included increases in muscle mass or cross-sectional area and the ratio of muscle mass to body mass (MM/BW). Lean body mass was excluded.
Trials had to report baseline and post-intervention data for at least one outcome measure.
Trials had to report the study design and report the unit or standard deviations for the original data reported by the authors. 827ec27edc