Replacing the Y-Gun in 1941 for launching of depth charges (also known as "ash cans"), the K-Gun (Mark 6, 7, and 9) laid better patterns in that the guns could be installed along a ship's topside when warranted. U.S. Navy destroyers usually had four to six while destroyer escorts carried eight. The range was 60 to 175 yards with flight time of 3.4 or 5.1 seconds. In the beginning of the war, depth charge attacks were slightly successful starting around 3 percent rising to around 30 percent damaged and 30 percent sunk at the end of the war.
The Uzi ( /ˈuːzi/ (listen); Hebrew: עוזי, romanized: Ūzi; officially cased as UZI) is a family of Israeli open-bolt, blowback-operated submachine guns and machine pistols first designed by Major Uziel "Uzi" Gal in the late 1940s, shortly after the establishment of the State of Israel. It is one of the first weapons to incorporate a telescoping bolt design, which allows the magazine to be housed in the pistol grip for a shorter weapon.
The Uzi has been exported to over 90 countries. Over its service lifetime, it has been manufactured by Israel Military Industries, FN Herstal, and other manufacturers. From the 1960s through to the 1980s, more Uzi submachine guns were sold to more military, law enforcement and security markets than any other submachine gun ever made.
The Uzi uses an open-bolt, blowback-operated design, quite similar to the Jaroslav Holeček-designed Czech ZK 476 (prototype only) and the production Sa 23, Sa 24, Sa 25, and Sa 26 series of submachine guns. The open bolt design exposes the breech end of the barrel, and improves cooling during periods of continuous fire. However, it means that since the bolt is held to the rear when cocked, the receiver is more susceptible to contamination from sand and dirt. It uses a telescoping bolt design, in which the bolt wraps around the breech end of the barrel. This allows the barrel to be moved far back into the receiver and the magazine to be housed in the pistol grip, allowing for a heavier, slower-firing bolt in a shorter, better-balanced weapon.
The Uzi has been used in various conflicts outside Israel and the Middle East during the 1960s and 1970s. Quantities of 9 mm Uzi submachine guns were used by Portuguese cavalry, police, and security forces during the Portuguese Colonial Wars in Africa.
The American firm Group Industries made limited numbers of a copy of the Uzi "B" model semiauto carbine for sale in the US along with copies of the Uzi submachine gun for the U.S. collectors' market. After registering several hundred submachine guns transferable to the general public through a special government regulated process, production was halted due to financial troubles at the company. Company assets (including partially made Uzi submachine guns, parts, and tooling) were purchased by an investment group later to become known as Vector Arms. Vector Arms built and marketed numerous versions of the Uzi carbine and the Mini Uzi.
This is not an idle concern. The United States experiences rates of gun violence that no other high-income nation comes even close to matching.2 This violence persists, even as the number of Americans who choose to own guns has steadily declined.3
There has been no significant change to the federal law governing commerce in firearms in more than 20 years. The law has failed to keep up with changes in the industry, in terms of scope, size, and the type of products being designed and sold. The laws are woefully out of date and unprepared to address advances in technology such as internet gun sales, 3D printing, homemade and untraceable ghost guns, and a proliferation of firearm silencers and other dangerous accessories. In addition, the law continues to tie the hands of the federal agency charged with conducting regulatory oversight of the industry.
The United States has been home to a robust firearms industry for decades. The earliest available data provided by ATF on firearms manufacturing reveals that 3.04 million guns were manufactured in the United States in 1986.13 While this volume of gun manufacturing remained relatively stable in the 1990s and 2000s, ATF data reveal a significant increase in recent years. While an annual average of 3.8 million firearms were manufactured in the United States from 1986 to 2008, this average more than doubled to an annual average of 8.4 million firearms per year from 2009 to 2018.14 (see Figure 1)
While the majority of new guns available for sale in the United States are manufactured domestically, a significant number of guns are imported into the country every year as well. Following similar trends as domestic manufacturing, gun imports have more than doubled in recent years: While the United States imported an annual average of 1.5 million firearms from 1986 to 2008, this annual average grew to 4.2 million firearms per year from 2008 to 2018.31 This increase was driven primarily by handgun and rifle imports.32 (see Figure 4)
Guns imported to the United States primarily originate from 15 countries.33 Austria is the top supplier of foreign-made guns, providing more than 5 million firearms, primarily handguns, to the U.S. market from 2013 to 2018. Brazil, Croatia, and Germany are other top suppliers of handguns, while Canada, Italy, and Turkey export a significant number of rifles and shotguns to the United States.34
Similar to firearm manufacturers, entities seeking to import guns must obtain a license from ATF, pay an annual fee of $50, and submit to a background check to ensure the key individuals are not prohibited from gun possession under federal law.35 Once granted, import licenses have a duration of three years.36 The number of these licenses has also increased considerably. While there were 735 entities holding a gun import license in 2009, this figure rose to 1,127 licensees in 2018, a 53 percent increase.37 Looking at data for 2018, more than 40 percent of these licenses were held by individuals or businesses in just six states: Florida, Texas, California, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Arizona.38
The duty to regulate firearms imports falls on both ATF and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). To import guns, individuals must fill out an ATF form that clearly identifies the type and number of firearms being imported in each individual shipment.39 Once the forms are approved by ATF and those firearms enter the United States, CBP officials examine the items to ensure that they match with what was approved by ATF.40 If everything is in order, CBP will approve those firearms to leave the port of entry and enter the United States.
Data from the U.S. Census Bureau reveal the primary countries receiving exported firearms from the United States from 2014 through 2018, the most recent years for which data are available.48 Handguns were primarily exported to Thailand, Canada, the Philippines, and Belgium. Canada is by far the biggest recipient of U.S. long guns, with more than $350 million worth of imports from 2014 through 2018. In fact, Canada spends more money on the importation of U.S. long guns than the other top 30 countries combined.49
This personnel shortage has serious consequences for efforts to ensure robust oversight of this industry. Under federal law, ATF is permitted to conduct one regulatory compliance inspection of each licensee per year, and ATF has set an internal goal of inspecting all gun dealers once every three years.65 However, current resource limitations have left the agency falling far short of either goal. In 2019, ATF investigators conducted only 13,079 compliance inspections of firearms licensees, meaning that 83 percent of those licensed by ATF to manufacture or distribute guns did not receive an inspection that year.66 These inspections are crucially important: In fiscal year 2019, 47 percent of the licensees inspected were found to have violations, and the violations that were discovered ranged from failure to properly complete the paperwork necessary for crime gun tracing to failure to conduct a background check.67 Because of the limited resources available for gun dealer compliance inspections, ATF generally prioritizes inspections of those dealers who are at risk for compliance issues, such as those who have had crime guns traced to them; have experienced theft; or are located near the southern border, where international gun trafficking often occurs, or in communities that have high violent crime rates.68
In addition to grave problems surrounding the lack of regulation of corporate manufacturing of firearms, ammunition, and firearm accessories, there exists an entire segment of the firearms industry that operates with even less oversight than traditional manufacturers: homemade firearms, ammunition, and firearm accessories makers. There is a robust online community of amateur gun-makers offering tips and tricks for making guns at home and selling kits to allow people to do so that often come very close to the line of what is legally permissible.167 There are two primary concerns related to homemade firearms and accessories: First, these guns and accessories are often made using parts that can be purchased without a background check, creating an easy avenue for individuals prohibited from gun possession to evade that law and make guns at home. Second, homemade guns and accessories are often made with parts that are not required to include a serial number, rendering the finished firearm untraceable if it is later used in a crime.
The dangers associated with ghost guns are not theoretical. In 2013, a shooter opened fire in Santa Monica, California, shooting 100 rounds, killing five people and injuring several others at a community college using a homemade AR-15 rifle.183 Reporting indicates the shooter had previously tried to purchase a firearm from a licensed gun dealer and failed a background check, potentially indicating why he opted to order parts to build a gun instead.184 In 2017, in Northern California, a man prohibited from possessing firearms ordered kits to build AR-15-style rifles.185 On November 13, he initiated a series of shootings that began with fatally shooting his wife at home, followed by a rampage the next day during which he fired at multiple people in several different locations, including an elementary school, killing five people and injuring dozens more.186 In 2019, a shooter used a homemade gun kit to build a .223-caliber firearm used in a bar in Dayton, Ohio, to fire 41 shots in 32 seconds, shooting 26 people and killing 9.187 These kits create an easy way for individuals who are prohibited from buying a gun and could not pass a background check, such as the Dayton shooter, to easily evade that law and build a gun at home.188 2b1af7f3a8